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I am grateful to the staff of the AIIS office in Pune for their logisti- cal support as well, and particularly to Prof. and graciously served as my academic advisor in India.My studies at the University of Pennsylvania have indebted me to numerous teachers; beyond the dissertation committee, I owe special thanks to Professors Aditya Behl, George Cardona, Stephen Dunning, the late (and much missed) Wilhelm Halb- fass, Christian Novetzke, and Ludo Rocher. Alexis Sanderson of the University of Oxford, with whom I had the privilege of reading part of the Brahmayamala at an early stage in my research, and whose guidance has been invaluable.The departments of Re- ligious Studies and South Asia Studies at Penn both provided me travel grants at various times, and sustained my intellectual journey in numerous other ways.For access to manuscripts and other research materials, I am grateful to the curators and staff of the National Archives of Kathmandu, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Department of Sanskrit (Manuscript Division) of Visvabharatl University, Bhandarkar Oriental Research Institute, Van Pelt Library, Nepal Research Center, and AIIS Center for Art and Archeology. Bahulkar of the Tilak Maharashtra Vidyapeeth, who arranged for my affiliation with the t.m.v.

It is within this context that the Brahmayamala is situated. AIIS Photo Archive 40 2.5 Bird-headed Mother goddess carrying an infant in her likeness. AIIS Photo Archive 59 2.9 Saptamatr Panel, with Virabhadra (left) and Ganesa (right). AIIS Photo Archive 59 viii IX 2.10 Yaksa at pillar base, Nagarjunakonda. AIIS Photo Archive 62 2.11 Theriomorphic gana or dvdrapdla. AIIS Photo Archive 72 2.15 Frontal view of the Hirapur yogini temple. (Petech's samvat 100-50-2 is a typographical error for samvat 100-70-2; the ms reads samvat a cu 2 -) 2 The dating of the Brahmayamala is addressed in chapter 4, section 3.The typesetting of the critical edition of the Brahmayamala using DTp X was in no small measure enabled by technical help from Dr. Fortunately, the product of his labors found its way into the manuscript collections of Nepalese royalty, and is today housed in the National Archives in Kathmandu.Somadeva Vasudeva, from whom I have learned much concerning Saivism as well. 1 But for this, precious little knowledge of a vast and important pre ninth-century work would have been possible, 2 a fate which has befallen all too many works of tantric literature.Part II of the dissertation consists of critical editions and translations of several chapters of the Bra Ya, which appear in print for the first time. 218 4.4 Bhairavatantras of the Right Stream ( daksinasrotas ) 218 4.5 A parallel passage in the Brahmayamala and Nisvasatattvasamhita 219 4.6 The Navdtman Mantra in the Nisvasottara and the Vidyaraja of the Svac- chandatantra 220 4.7 The Nine Tattvas in the Bra Ya 221 4.8 Individuals mentioned in Bra Ya 1 230 4.9 The Eight Cremation Grounds in Bra Ya 111 233 4.10 The Eight Sacred Mounds ( pitha ) in Bra Ya lxxxiv 234 5.1 Deities of the Navaksara Vidya 252 5.2 The Ten Streams of Revelation according to Bra Ya xxxvm 267 vii List of Figures 1.1 National Archives of Kathmandu ms 3-370, folios 3v~4r. ); Hirapur yogini temple, to the right of the entrance, exterior facade, standing upon severed head. AIIS Photo Archive 116 2.21 Camunda, Hirapur yogini temple. "Tantric Saivism." The most significant emic term for this tradition is "the Mantramarga" or "Way of Mantras ." 5 It should not be inferred from the paucity of extant manuscripts that the Bra Ya was an unimportant or little-known work of tantric literature.IV Contents List of Tables vii List of Figures viii I History and Sources 1 1 Introduction 2 1.1 The Brahmayamalatantra and Cult of Yogin Ts 2 1.2 The Brahmayamala in Scholarship 23 1.3 A Note on Conventions 29 2 Early Evidence for the Cult of Yoginis: the Literary, Sculptural, and Epi- graphic Sources 31 2.1 Introduction: Yoginis and Mother Goddesses 31 2.2 Early Sources 35 2.3 The Later Literary Evidence 73 2.4 Temples of the Yoginis 110 2.5 Conclusions 128 3 The Cult of Yoginis and its Background in Early Tantric Literature 131 3.1 Introduction 131 3.2 The Background of the Yogini Cult in Tantric Saiva Literature 133 3.3 Scriptures of the Saiva Yogini Cult: the Vidyapltha and Kaula 153 v VI 3.4 Yoginis in Early Buddhist Tantric Literature 162 3.5 Buddhist and Saiva "Yogimtantras": the Case of the Brahmayamala and Laghucakrasamvaratantra 175 3.6 Conclusions 187 4 The Content, Structure, and Provenance of the Brahmayamala 190 4.1 Introduction: Select Topics in the Brahmayamala 190 4.2 Structure and Textual Strata 200 4.3 On the Provenance of the Brahmayamala 211 5 To Name a Tantra: Identity, History, and the Saiva Canon in the Epithets of the Brahmayamala 237 5.1 Brahmayamala 238 5.2 Picumata 243 5.3 Navaksaravidhana: the "Method of Nine Syllables" 251 5.4 Mulatantra: the "Root Scripture" 258 5.5 Dvadasasahasraka: the "Tantra of Twelve-Thousand Verses" 273 5.6 Vimala and the Ucchusmatantra 275 6 Conclusion 282 II The Brahmayamala: A Critical Edition and Translation of Chapters i, ii, lv, lxxiii, and xcix 285 Appendices 424 A Chapter Colophons of the Brahmayamala in its Oldest Nepalese Codex (nak 3-370) 425 Works Cited 434 List of Tables 3.1 A parallel passage in Brahmayamala lxxxiv and Laghusamvara 26 178 4.1 Forms of Bhairava in the Brahmayamala 192 4.2 Siddhantatantras of the Middle Stream ( madhyamasrotas ) according to Bra Ya XXXVIII 217 4.3 Tantras of the Left Stream ( vamasrotas ) and Lower Stream ( adhahsrotas ) . 4 1.2 nak 3-370, detail of folios 3V and 4r, left third 4 1.3 Siva enshrined within a circle of sixty-four yoginls. AIIS Photo Archive 12 2.1 Mother goddess bearing lotus and infant, making the abhayamudra. AIIS Photo Archive 38 2.2 Skanda (left) and five mdtrs. AIIS Photo Archive (detail) 116 2.22 Veneration of sandals representing a yogini, depicted below a yogini im- age's pedestal. AIIS Photo Archive 119 5.1 The 'Origin of Scripture' ( Sivatantrotpatti ) according Nisvasatantra, Uttarasutra 1.23-25 260 5.2 The 'Descent of Scripture' ( sastrdvatdra ) according to Svacchandatantra 8 . 261 5.3 The 'Descent of Scripture' (sastrdvatdra) according to Brahmaydmala 1 and xxxviii 263 Abbreviations Bra Ya Brahmayamala nak National Archives of Kathmandu ngmpp Nepal-German Manuscript Preservation Project ksts Kashmir Series of Texts and Studies tss Trivandrum Sanskrit Series aiis American Institute of Indian Studies ms, mss manuscript(s) cod. A glimpse of the authority it once commanded may be had in the writing of the Kashmiri polymath Abhinavagupta (fl. E.), who cited the scripture often despite its degree of cultic and doctrinal remoteness .

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